Whakaheke ngaru

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Te whakaheke ngaru kei Pīhā, Aotearoa

Ko te whakaheke ngaru he tākaro tino tawhito o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa. Kua hipa pea te 4000 tau i tīmata ai ngā tāngata o Porinīhia ki te whakaheke ngaru i runga papa rākau.

Ki Hawai'i[edit | edit source]

I te taenga o ngā tūpuna ki Hawai'i, (400 AD), i hangaia ngā papa kia roa ake. I tino ngākaunui rātou ki tēnei tākaro, tāne mai, wāhine mai, tamariki mai, rangatira mai. I mīharo rawa atu ngā Pākehā tae tuatahi atu ki Hawai'i i tō rātou kitenga i te hanga nei e whakahaere pērā ana. Tae noa ki ngā tau whakatuwhera o te rautau tekau mā iwa, ruarua noa iho te hunga o Hawai'i i te mahi tonu. Engari ka mau aua ruarua i ki ērā o ngā mahi a ō rātou tūpuna.

Ki Aotearoa nei[edit | edit source]

He ngākaunui ngā kaiwhakaheke ngaru

Ahakoa ko ngā Hawai'i ngā tino tohunga ki ēnei mahi, he tākaro i whakahaerea e ngā iwi katoa o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa. I Aotearoa nei, i whakaheke ngaru ngā tūpuna o te Māori; ko tō rātou tikanga takahi ngaru he waka, he kōpapa, he pōhā, tae noa atu ki ō rātou ake tinana noa iho. I riri ngā mihinare i tō rātou taenga tuatahi mai ki Aotearoa, he whakaaro tō rātou he hara te mahi a ngā Māori ki te whakaheke ngaru he iti noa iho nga kākahu. Koia rā i ngaro haere ērā mahi.


I te tau 1907 nā George Freeth te tākaro nei i mau ki Karapōnia. I te 1911 nā Duke Kahanamoku, nā te toa o te ao i ngā Taumāhekeheke o te Ao ki te kauhoe, i whakaatu tēnei mahi i reira. I whakaaturia e ia tēnei mahi ki Ahitereiria i te tau 1914, ki Aotearoa i te tau 1915.

Kāore i roa, ka puta ngā kaiwhakahaere whakaheke ngaru ki ngā takutai moana o Aotearoa. Tae noa ki ngā tau 1950 i tae mai te tokorua nō Karipōnia, a Rick Stoner rāua ko Bing Copeland kimi ngaru nunui ai. Kātahi anō ka kitea i i te one i Pīhā ā rāua kōpapa 'Malibu'; nā ēnei momo kōpapa i taea ai te hunga whakaheke ngaru te hōkai ngaru. Nō muri mai, i tino mahia te mahi whakaheke i konei.

I ngā tau tīmatanga o ngā tau 1960 e 300 ngā kaiwhakaheke ngaru i Niu Tīreni. Ināianei, tata ana ki te 240,000. E ai ki ngā tatauranga a te Kōmihana ā Hillary, he nui kē atu te hunga whakaheke ngaru i te hunga purei whutupōro, 75,000 te nui atu i ngā mea purei whutupōro.

Hoto ki waho[edit | edit source]

Tohutoro[edit | edit source]

  • Finney, Ben and James Houston (1996). Surfing - A History of the Ancient Hawaiian Sport. San Francisco: Pomegranate Artbooks
  • Pearson, Kent (1979). Surfing Subcultures of Australia & New Zealand. University of Queensland Press
  • Williamson, Luke (2000). Gone Surfing - The Golden Years of Surfing in New Zealand, 1950-1970. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Penguin Books