Reo Māori

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Ko te reo Māori te reo o te tangata whenua o Aotearoa. Nā te ture anō i whakamana te reo Māori hei reo a te motu o Aotearoa. 160,000 ngā kaikōrero reo Māori i Aotearoa, e ai ki te tatauranga tangata o te motu i te tau 1996. Ko ngā takiwā kaha ki te mau i te reo hei reo hapori ko Te Tai-tokerau, ko Te Urewera, ko Te Tai-rāwhiti.

He reo o Porinīhia[edit | edit source]

Ko te reo Māori nō te reo whānau o ngā iwi o Porinīhia ki te rāwhiti, arā he reo ka ahu mai nō te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa, me te aha, e ōrite ana te reo Māori ki te reo o Rarotonga, o Manihiki-Rakahanga, o Tahiti, ā, o ngā moutere Tuamotu anō hoki. He whanaunga āhua tawhiti anō ki te reo o Hawaii, o Nuku Hiva, o Rapa Nui me ētahi atu moutere o te Moana-nui-o-Kiwa. Ahakoa he nui atu i te kotahi mano tau i wehe mai i ērā o aua reo whanaunga, he tata tonu. I te taenga mai o Kāpene Kuki ki Aotearoa i te 1769, he rangatira nō Tahiti, ko Tupaea te ingoa, i runga i tana kaipuke. Ko te mahi a Tupaea, he kōrero tahi ki ngā Māori, i mārama rātou ki tana reo, kore rawa he raruraru; arā he kaiwhakamāori ia kia mōhio ai a Kuki ki ngā whakaaro o te Māori o taua wā. Mā te ripanga i raro iho nei e whakamārama ngā hononga i waenganui i ngā reo o Porinīhia:

Tonga Niue Hāmoa Rapa Nui Tahiti Rarotonga Māori Hawaii
rangi /laŋi/ /laŋi/ /laŋi/ /ɾaŋi/ /ɾaʔi/ /ɾaŋi/ /ɾaŋi/ /lani/
tokerau /tokelau/ /tokelau/ /toʔelau/ /tokeɾau/ /toʔeɾau/ /tokeɾau/ /tokeɾau/ /koʔolau/
wahine /fefine/ /fifine/ /fafine/ /hahine/ /vahine/ /vaʔine/ /wahine/ /wahine/
whare /fale/ /fale/ /fale/ /haɾe/ /faɾe/ /ʔaɾe/ /ɸaɾe/ /hale/
matua /motuʔa/ /motua/ /matua/ /matuʔa/ /metua/ /metua/ /matua/ /makua/

He reo tapu, he reo whai mana[edit | edit source]

Ki tō te Māori whakaaro, ko te reo Māori he reo tapu, he reo tuku iho nā ngā atua ki ngā tūpuna. "He mana tō te reo, he ihi tō te reo, he tapu tō te reo. He wairua tō te reo, he mauri anō tō te reo. Mā te wairua ka rangona te reo, mā te mauri ka mana ai te reo. I kī mai ngā tūpuna, ko te reo rauriki te reo tapu o Ranginui rātou ko ngā atua; ko te reo reiuru e kōrerotia ake nei ko te reo tapu o Papatūānuku. Nā, ko te reo rauriki te reo hei kawe i te manawa tapu o ngā karakia, ā, ka whakauru atu ki roto i te tangata, kia pērā anō te mana o tana kupu i tō ngā atua ki tā rātou i whakahau mai ai i te rangi. Ko te reo reiuru, ko tōna kōrero ko te reo e taea ai e te tangata te kōrero, te mātau rānei ki ngā momo reo kē o Papatūānuku, arā te reo o ngā manu, o ngā ika, o ngā kararehe, o ngā rākau, o ngā uri katoa o Papatūānuku. Kia nei te reo wāhine hei whakaoho ake i te hunga wairua i runga anō i te tangi karanga ka whakapāoho ki runga i ngā marae. E kore e taea e te tangata te mau ki ēnei reo, mena kāhore noa e tapu pono ki ngā atua, ko te mea nui ko te reo tapu me ngā karakia tapu. Mā te reo ka manaakitia te tangata, ko taua reo anō ka kanga i te tangata; mā te reo ka piki te tangata ki ngā taumata whakahirahira, ko taua reo anō ka heke te tangata ki te pito kukume tonu o Whirotetupua. Nō reira, ko te reo tapu he tohu mana nō te tangata, he mana tūturu nō te atua, e kore e whakapōreareatia e te tangata kē" (Barlow 1991:112).

Reo-ā-iwi[edit | edit source]

He rerekē te tangi me te mita o te reo o ia iwi, o ia iwi, o ia iwi; hei tauira, he rerekē te tangi mai o te reo o Waikato ki tērā o Te Wai-pounamu. Nā Te Manihera (R. Maunsell), te ātirīkona o Tāmaki Makaurau, i kōrerohia ngā reo-ā-iwi i roto i te tuawhā o ngā putanga o tana pukapuka Grammar of the New Zealand Language i te 1894. E ai ki Te Manihera, e whitu ngā reo-ā-iwi nō roto tonu i Te Ika-a-Māui. Nāna hoki te kōrero, he rerekētanga anō i roto tonu o aua reo e whitu. Mai i taua wā, nā ētahi atu tohunga wetereo e whakarerekēngia ai aua whakaaro; engari mā te ripanga nei e whakaatu ētahi o aua rerekētanga:

Ngā Puhi Waikato Taranaki Taupō Rotorua Tai-rāwhiti
/ta:tou/ /ta:tou/ /ta:tou/ /ta:tou/, /ta:tau/ /ta:tau/ /ta:tau/
/ɾa:tou/ /ɾa:tou/ /ɾa:tou/ /ɾa:tou/, /ɾa:tau/ /ɾa:tau/ /ɾa:tau/
/hei/ /hei/ /ʔei/ /hei/, /hai/ /hai/ /hai/
/teina/ /teina/ /teina/ /teina/ /taina/ /taina/
/ɸaka-/, /haka-/ / ɸaka-/ /ʔʍaka-/ /ɸaka-/ /ɸaka-/ / ɸaka-/

Waimemehatanga[edit | edit source]

Nō ngā tau whakatuwhera o te Rautau 19, ka tīmata te noho tahi a te Pākehā ki te Māori i Aotearoa nei. Nō te tau 1815, ka puta te pukapuka tuatahi i tāia ki te reo, He Korao o Niu Tireni nā Tāmati Kānara. Ko te whakamārama o te taitara o taua pukapuka, 'He kōrero o Aotearoa'. Nō muri ake, ka tāia e Koroneho, e Wiremu he pukapuka i roto i te reo. Ko tētahi pukapuka whaimana i tāia i taua wā ko te Paipera Tapu. He kaha hoki te Māori ki te tuhituhi kōrero i te reo. Ka taea hoki te kī, i taua wā, he pai ake ngā Māori i ngā Pākēhā ki te tuhituhi.

Ko te mea whakahinapōuri kē ki te ngākau Māori, ka tahuri ngā Pākehā ki te hāpai i te mana o tō rātou ake reo. Nō te tau 1867, i kī te ture mō ngā kura Māori, kia akongia ki te reo Ingarihi i ngā kura, kia kaua ngā tamariki e kōrero i te Reo i roto i ngā kura. Ka tīmata i konei te waimemehatanga o te reo rangatira, nā te mea ki te kōrero Māori ngā tamariki i roto i ngā kura ka patua e ngā kaiako Pākehā. He raruraru nui tērā. Koia rā i mataku ai rātou ki te kōrero i te reo, ka tahuri kē ki te reo Pākehā. "Ka mōhio mai tātou, ki te kore e kōrero i te reo i roto i ngā tū āhua mahi katoa a te iwi, ia rā, ia rā, ka hohoro te ngaro, ka mate hoki te reo. Ko te mea tika me kōrero tonu te reo i ngā wā katoa, i roto i ngā karakia, i ngā wāhi mahi, i ngā toa hokohoko, i ngā wheketere, i ngā wāhi tākaro, i ngā kura; nō reira, mā ēnei whakaritenga ka tupu kaha te reo - kia kaua e ngaro. Nā reira, itiiti noa iho ngā wāhi kōrero i te reo Māori; ki ngā marae, me ētahi kura, hāhi, me ngā kohanga reo... Ahakoa, e kaha ana te Māori ki te whakamana i te reo hei reo tūturu mō ngā tāngata o tō tātou motu. E kore pea e taea kia noho ia hei reo mō ētahi taikanga motuhake i roto i te iwi, pēnei i te reo mihi i runga i ngā marae, hei reo kōrero hoki mō ētahi o ngā whānau. Ko te tumanako kia hāpaitia tonutia te reo kia kore e ngaro, engari kia pūāwai i runga i ngā tikanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi, kia whakapuare huarahi kia noho pūmau tonu te reo hei taonga whakahirahira mō ake tonu atu" (Barlow 1991:113).

I whakatūhia Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi i te marama o Whiringa-a-nuku, 1975. I puta te rangahau mō te āhuatanga o te reo Māori 1973-78 a te Kaunihera Rangahau Mātauranga o Aotearoa (NZCER) e kī ana 18-20 ōrau anake o te iwi Māori e matatau ana ki te kōrero i te reo Māori, ā, i kī anō hoki kei te noho tino mōrearea te reo Māori. I te tau 1986 i rongohia e te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi te kereme mō Te Reo Māori. Nā tēnei i tū ai Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori i te tau 1987. Nā te mahi rangahau a te motu 1995, e pā ana ki te āhua o te reo, i whakapūmau ngā kitenga a tērā o ngā rangahau ki mua, me te tohu mai ahakoa e kōrerotia ana te reo Māori e te 59 ōrau o ngā pakeke Māori, e kitea ana ko te tokomaha (83 ōrau) o rātou he paku noa iho te matau mō te kōrero, ko ētahi kāre i paku kōrero i te reo Māori. E 8 ōrau anake o ngā pakeke Māori e tino matatau ana ki te reo Māori, ā, 33 ōrau o rātou, 60 tau te pakeke - neke atu rānei.

Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori[edit | edit source]

I te tau 1986, i mauria atu he kerēme ki te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi, ko te kerēme mō te reo Māori. Kātahi te ture mo te Reo Māori ka pahure hei Reo atoato i Aotearoa. I taua wā tonu, ka tū Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori hei Tari Kawana hei whanaketanga hei tautoko hoki i te Reo, i runga i te whakaaro i tukuna kētia te kerēme mo Te Reo Māori ki te Rōpū Whakamana. Ka whakamanahia-ā-ture te Ture Reo Māori i te Here-turi-kōkā o 1987. E toru ōna kaupapa:

  • Ka whakapuaki i te reo Māori hei reo mana-ā-ture mō te motu nei o Aotearoa.
  • Kei ngā kōti, kei ngā Kōmihana uiui me ngā Taraipiunara, e whakatau ake ana tēnei ture i te whakaae kia kōrero Māori i te kōti ahakoa mema kōti rānei, ko wai ake rānei o te kōti, kaituku kōrero, kaiāwhina rānei.
  • Ka tū rā hoki i a ia Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori. Ko tā Te Taura Whiri he whakatairanga i te reo Māori me ngā kaupapa reo; he hikihiki taumata mō te tuhituhi me te kōrero i te reo, arā mā te ara rūmaki, mā te whakamātautau reo, mā te niureta ia toru marama e kīa nei He Muka, ā, me ngā kōrero tautoko mai anō hoki a te hunga mahi kāwanatanga; he whakamana-ā-ture i ngā whakamātautau o te hunga e whai nei i te mahi whakamāori-ā-tuhi, ā-waha rānei; he rangahau huarahi e whakatairangatia ai, e hāpai tonutia ai te ahu whakamua o te reo; te hanga papa kupu. Kia ono anō ngā hui o Te Taura Whiri i ia tau. He tumuākī tō te hunga mahi, ka mutu ko ngā mahi he rangahau, he ārahi ture, he whakahoki tirohanga i ngā mahi whakamāori, he whakatairanga, me ērā atu mahi e homai e ngā Kaiwhiri. Whakapā mai i konei ka whiti rānei ki te wāhi whakahoki kōrero hei tuku kōrero mai rā.

Te Wiki o te Reo Māori[edit | edit source]

Ko Te Wiki o te Reo Māori he kaupapa o Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori kia whakatairangatia te whakamahia o te reo MāoriI tīmata te Wiki o te Reo Māori i te tau 1975. I te tīmatanga i whakatūhia he rā hei whakanui i te reo Māori. Ko te 14 o Mahuru 1972 te rā i whakatakotohia ki mua o te aroaro o te Pāremata te petihana mō te Reo Māori e mau ana i ngā waitohu 30,000. Nō te tau 1973 ka huri te rā hei wiki whakanui i te reo. I muri mai i tēnei ka nekehia e te Tāhuhu Mātauranga ki te marama o Hōngongoi kia hāngai ki te wāhanga kura o taua tau, ā, kei te mau tonu ki taua marama.

Kīwaha[edit | edit source]

Ki ētahi iwi, he kererū te manu nei; ki ētahi atu, he kūkupa kē. Koia rā te āhua o te reo: ki ia iwi, ki ia iwi, ōna ake tikanga kōrero, ōna ake kīwaha.

Ko ngā kīwaha he momo kōrero e whakaahua ana i ngā āhuatanga o ia rā, o ia rā, ā, me uaua ka kitea te tikanga tūturu i te papakupu, i te pukapuka wetereo rānei. Ki te whāia he tikanga ake o tēnā, o tēnā kupu, kāore tonu e kitea he māramatanga, i te mea kei tua kē te aronga o te kōrero. Nā Te Taura Whiri i Te Reo ēnei whakamārama:

  • Autaia (tonu) - whakamahia ai tēnei kupu hei whakaatu i te pai (autaia), i te āhua pai rānei (autaia tonu) o tētahi mea. Tērā pea e hāngai ana ki te tangata (autaia koe), ki te mahi rānei a te tangata, ki tētahi atu āhuatanga rānei.
  • E kī (rā) - e tohu ana tēnei i te mīharo, i te ohorere rānei o te kaikōrero ki tētahi tūāhua kātahi anō ka whakaaturia mai ki a ia.
  • Engari mō tēnā - ki te rongo koe i tēnei kōrero, kua mōhio koe e tino whakahē ana te kaikōrero i te whakaaro kātahi anō ka whakapuakina e tētahi atu.
  • Engari tonu - he momo whakamihi tēnei i te tangata, i tāna mahi, i tētahi kaupapa rānei, ā, e āhua whakaatu ana anō hoki i te mīharo o te kaikōrero ki tētahi tūāhua. Arā te kīwaha e āhau rite ana ki tēnei, ko te 'koia kei a koe'. Engari he wā anō tōna e whakahē ana i te kōrero a tētahi atu mēnā he rerenga whakakāhore taua kōrero, he wā anō e whakaū ana, e whakaae ana ki te kōrero a tētahi atu mēnā ehara i te rerenga whakakāhore. I ōna wā anō e tohu ana tēnei kīwaha i mōhio tonu te kaikōrero ka puta tētahi āhuatanga.
  • He aha hoki! - whakamahia ai tēnei kīwaha hei whakautu i tētahi atu kōrero, ā, he momo whakakāhore i taua kōrero rā i runga i te wairua whakaiti, whakatakē, whakangahau rānei. Tērā pea e hāngai ana ki te tangata nāna tonu te kōrero, tērā rānei e hāngai ana ki tētahi atu.
  • He aha te aha - ka noho mai tēnei kīwaha ki te wāhanga whakamutunga o tētahi rerenga. E tohu ana i te kore whaihua, i te moumou taima noa iho rānei o tētahi āhuatanga e whakaahuatia ana i te wāhanga tuatahi o te kōrero.
  • Hei aha (noa iho) - ko tētahi tikanga o tēnei kīwaha, ko te 'kāore he take o te māharahara', pērā tonu i te 'aua atu'. Ko tētahi atu tikanga o te 'hei aha noa iho' e whakaatu ana i te whakapono o te kaikōrero kāore he take o te whai i tētahi mahi, i tētahi āhuatanga rānei.
  • Ka wani kē - he whakamihi tēnei i te tangata mō tana mātau, mō tana tohungatanga rānei ki tētahi mea.
  • Kei a koe mō te... - he whakanui tēnei i te pai o te tangata ki te mahi i tētahi mahi. I ētahi wā, he āhua whakahē tēnei i te tangata mō tētahi āhua ōna e hapa ana, ki tā te kaikōrero titiro.
  • Kei a koe te tikanga - e tohu ana tēnei kei a wai te mana whakatau i tētahi take, pērā i te whakatau a te tangata ki tēnā, ki tēnā o ngā rārangi pōti e rua o Aotearoa nei.
  • Kei runga noa atu koe - he momo whakanui tēnei i te tangata, mōna i mahi i tētahi mahi pai. Me uaua ka rangona e whakamahia ana e te tangata mōna anō, engari arā pea ētahi wā ruarua ka taea. He wā anō ka taea te whakamahi hei whakaahua i te pai o tētahi atu mea, pērā i tētahi kaupapa.
  • Koia kei (a koe) - ko tā tēnei kīwaha, he whakaatu tahi i te tautoko me te āhua mīharo o te kaikōrero ki te whakaaro, ki te mahi rānei a tētahi atu. Engari i tōna wā anō, ko tā tēnei kīwaha he whakahē i te kōrero, i te mahi rānei a tētahi tangata, me te tohu anō hoki he wā ka taka, ka kai taua tangata i ana hamuti, arā, ka hoki mai ngā hua kino o tāna mahi ki runga ki a ia.
  • Koia (rā/pū) - ko tā tēnei kīwaha e tohu ana, kei te tautoko, kei te whakaae rānei te kaikōrero ki te whakaaro kātahi anō ka whakapuakina e tētahi atu.
  • (Ka/he/te) tau kē (hoki)! - he whakamihi anō tēnei i te pai o te tangata, o tētahi mahi, o tētahi atu āhuatanga rānei. Mehemea ko te 'tau' te kupu tuatahi, me mātua noho mai te kupu 'kē' hei hoa mōna. I ētahi atu whakamahinga, kei a koe te tikanga ina raua atu te 'kē', kāore rānei.
  • Mai anō - e tohu ana tēnei i te kaha roa o te wā e mau ana tētahi āhuatanga, e mahia ana tētahi mahi.
  • Piki, heke - ko tētahi tikanga o tēnei kīwaha, ko te 'kāore he take o te māharahara'; ko tā te tangata mahi mai rā anō, he kimi huarahi māna e tutuki ana tino kaupapa arā noa iho ngā āhuatanga o te wā.
  • Te mutunga (kē) mai (nei) o te ... - whakamahia ai tēnei kōrero hei whakakaha ake i tētahi whakaaro, tae atu ki ngā whakaaro whakamihi i te tangata, i tētahi atu āhuatanga rānei, pērā i 'te mutunga mai o te pai'.

Tirohia hoki[edit | edit source]

Hoto ki waho[edit | edit source]

Tohutoro[edit | edit source]

  • C. Barlow, Tikanga Whakaaro. Tāmaki-makau-rau, Oxford, 1991.
  • M. Bartlett, 'Tūkaha Te Reo Māori!'. Salient, 24 Hōngongoi 2006. URL:[1].
  • B.G. Biggs, Let's Learn Māori. Tāmaki-makau-rau, Uniprint, 1996.
  • R. Maunsell, Grammar of the New Zealand Language. Putanga tuawhā. Tāmaki-makau-rau, 1894.
  • Te Taura Whiri i Te Reo Māori, He Kohinga Kīwaha. Putanga tuarua. Tāmaki-makau-rau:Reed, 2005.