Paparahi

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Mahere whenua pakiwaituhi whai tae e whakaatu i ngā paparahi me ngā rohe whakaehu. I runga i ngā tukanga tatau rerekē, ka whakakotahia, ke weheruatia ētahi paparahi: hei tauira, i te nuinga o te wā ka weheruatia Eurāhia hei Ūropi me Āhia (wāhanga whero), ā, i ētahi wā ka tohua Amerika ki te Raki me Amerika ki te Tonga hei tētahi paparahi kē (wāhanga kākāriki).

Ko te paparahi tētahi whenua e karapotia e te wai, ā, he nui ake i te moutere.

Ahakoa tēnei whakamāramatanga ngāwari, ehara te paparahi i te mea paearu taikaha, ā, he maha ngā tukanga tatau rerekē mō te tau o ngā paparahi ki Papatūānuku. Heoti, e ai ki te ritenga, e whitu ngā rohe e māramatia auautia ko te paparahi, arā ko: (mai te nui rawa ki te iti) Āhia, Āwherika, Amerika-ki-te-Raki, Amerika ki te Tonga, te Tiri o te Moana, Ūropi, me te Ao-o-Kiwa.

I te tātai aro whenua, he wāhanga kirinuku paparahi hoki ngā paparahi totohu.

Tukanga Tatau[edit | edit source]

He maha ngā tukanga tatau paparahi rerekē:

Tauira
Continents vide couleurs.png
Mahere whenua whai tae e whakaatu ana i ngā paparahi whakaehu. Whakaatu ai ngā kano āhua ōrite i ngā rohe ka taea te whakakotahi, te weherua rānei.
Paparahi 3[1]     Āwhe-Eurāhia    Amerika   Tiri o te Moana
Paparahi 4[2]     Āwhe-Eurāhia    Amerika   Tiri o Te Moana   Ahitereiria
Paparahi 5
[3][4][5]
  Āwherika    Eurāhia    Amerika   Tiri o Te Moana   Ahitereiria
Paparahi 6[6]   Āwherika   Ūropi   Āhia    Amerika   Tiri o Te Moana   Ahitereiria
Paparahi 6
[3][7]
  Āwherika    Eurāhia   Amerika ki te Raki   Amerika ki te Tonga   Tiri o Te Moana   Ahitereiria
Paparahi 7
[8][7][9][10][11][12]
  Āwherika   Ūropi   Āhia   Amerika ki te Raki   Amerika ki te Tonga   Tiri o Te Moana   Ahitereiria

I ētahi wā ka whakamahia te kupu Ao o Kiwa hei whakakapi mō te kupu Ahitereiria hei ingoa mō tētahi rohe whai te paparahi Ahitereiria me ētahi atu moutere ki te Moananui ā-Kiwa kāore i roto i te tauira paparahi-e-whitu. Hei tauira, ka whakamahia te Atlas of Canada (Mahere o Kānata) i te ingoa Ao-o-Kiwa,[9] ā, ka pērā hoki ngā tauira e whakaakona ki Wīwī, Itāria, Kirihi,[6] ki ngā whenua Ibero-Amerika (Pāniora, Potukara, Parihi me Amerika Hipāniora), Haina, me Kōrea ki te Tonga.

Rahinga whenua, taupori[edit | edit source]

Template:Tiro hoki

Ka whakarāpopoto te ripanga e whai ake nei i ngā rahinga me taupori o ia paparahi (me te tauira paparahi whitu), kua raupapahia ā-rahinga e heke ana.[17]

Whakatauritenga rahinga (ā-10 miriona km²) me taupori (ā-piriona tāngata).
Paparahi Rahi (km²) Rahi (mi²) Ōrau whenua
tapeke
Taupori Ōrau
taupori tapeke
Taupori kiato
ia km²
Taupori kiato
ia mi²
Tāone whaimana taupori maha
Āhia 43,820,000 16,920,000 29.5% 4,164,252,000 60% 95.0 246 Shanghai, Haina
Āwherika 30,370,000 11,730,000 20.4% 1,022,234,000 15% 33.7 87 Lagos, Ngāitiria
Amerika ki te Raki 24,490,000 9,460,000 16.5% 542,056,000 8% 22.1 57 Mexico City, Mehiko
Amerika ki te Tonga 17,840,000 6,890,000 12.0% 392,555,000 6% 22.0 57 São Paulo, Parīhi
Tiri o Te Moana 13,720,000 5,300,000 9.2% 4,490[18] 0% 0.0003 0.00078 McMurdo Station, US
Ūropi 10,180,000 3,930,000 6.8% 738,199,000 11% 72.5 188 Mohikau, Rūhia[19]
Ahitereiria 9,008,500 3,478,200 5.9% 29,127,000 0.4% 3.2 8.3 Poihākena, Ahitereiria

E 148,647,000 square kilometres (57,393,000 sq mi) te rahinga whenua tapeke o ngā paparahi katoa, arā, 29.1% o te mata o te ao (510,065,600 km2 or 196,937,400 sq mi).

E 7,000,000,000 te taupori tapeke o ngā paparahi katoa e ai ki te whakataunga tata āwhiwhiwhi.

Tūwāhi teitei, hohonu[edit | edit source]

Template:Tiro hoki

Whakaatu ai ngā ripanga e whai ake nei i ngā paparahi e whitu me ō rātou pūwāhi teitei rawa, pūwāhi hohonu rawa, kua raupapahia ā-pūwāhi teitei rawa e heke ana.

Paparahi Tūwāhi teitei Tairanga (m) Tairanga (ft) Whenua, takiwā rānei reira te tūwāhi teitei Tūwāhi hohonu Tairanga (m) Tairanga (ft) Whenua, takiwā rānei reira te tūwāhi hohonu
Āhia Maunga Everest 8,848 29,029 Haina / Nepōra Moana Mate −427 −1,401 Iharaira / Hōrano
Amerika ki te Tonga Aconcagua 6,960 22,830 Āketina Laguna del Carbón −105 −344 Āketina
Amerika ki te Raki Denali 6,198 20,335 Hononga-o-Amerika Death Valley −86 −282 Hononga-o-Amerika
Āwherika Mount Kilimanjaro 5,895 19,341 Tānahia Roto Assal −155 −509 Tipūti
Ūropi Maunga Elbrus 5,642 18,510 Rūhia Moana Caspian −28 −92 Rūhia
Tiri o Te Moana Vinson Massif 4,892 16,050 (korekau) Roto Hohonu, Vestfold Hills −50 −160 (korekau)
Ahitereiria Puncak Jaya 4,884 16,024 Initonīhia (Papua) Roto Eyre −15 −49 Ahitereiria

† The lowest exposed points are given for North America and Antarctica. The lowest non-submarine bedrock elevations in these continents are the trough beneath Jakobshavn Glacier (−1,512 metres (−4,961 ft)[20]) and Bentley Subglacial Trench (−2,540 metres (−8,330 ft)), but these are covered by kilometers of ice.

Some sources list the Kuma–Manych Depression (a remnant of the Paratethys) as the geological border between Europe and Asia. This would place the Caucasus outside of Europe, thus making Mont Blanc (elevation 4810 m) in the Graian Alps the highest point in Europe - the lowest point would still be the shore of the Caspian Sea.

Kupu tautoko[edit | edit source]

  1. "The Theory of Geography: Rethinking Classic Distinctions". Longstreet, Cecil, ed. 1970. Durham: Smythe, Green, and Richardson; p. 302.
  2. (2005, Golson Books Ltd.) R. W. McColl: 'continents' - Encyclopedia of World Geography, Volume 1. He mea kite i te 2012-06-26. “And since Africa and Asia are connected at the Suez Peninsula, Europe, Africa, and Asia are sometimes combined as Afro-Eurasia or Eurafrasia.” 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Continent. Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, 2012. Columbia University Press.
  4. Océano Uno, Diccionario Enciclopédico y Atlas Mundial, "Continente", page 392, 1730. ISBN 84-494-0188-7
  5. Los Cinco Continentes (The Five Continents), Planeta-De Agostini Editions, 1997. ISBN 84-395-6054-0
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 [1] Older/previous official Greek Paedagogical Institute 6th grade Geography textbook (at the Wayback Machine), 5+1 continents combined-America model; Pankosmios Enyklopaidikos Atlas, CIL Hellas Publications, ISBN 84-407-0470-4, page 30, 5+1 combined-America continents model; Neos Eikonographemenos Geographikos Atlas, Siola-Alexiou, 6 continents combined-America model; Lexico tes Hellenikes Glossas, Papyros Publications, ISBN 978-960-6715-47-1, lemma continent (epeiros), 5 continents model; Lexico Triantaphyllide online dictionary , Greek Language Center (Kentro Hellenikes Glossas), lemma continent (epeiros), 6 continents combined-America model; Lexico tes Neas Hellenikes Glossas, G.Babiniotes, Kentro Lexikologias (Legicology Center) LTD Publications , ISBN 960-86190-1-7, lemma continent (epeiros), 6 continents combined-America model
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Continent". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  8. World, National Geographic - Xpeditions Atlas. 2006. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society.
  9. 9.0 9.1 The World - Continents, Atlas of Canada
  10. The New Oxford Dictionary of English. 2001. New York: Oxford University Press.
  11. "Continent". MSN Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006.. Archived 2009-10-31.
  12. "Continent". McArthur, Tom, ed. 1992. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. New York: Oxford University Press; p. 260.
  13. F-10 Curriculum Geograph. Australian Curriculum, Assessment, and Reporting Authority.
  14. National curriculum in England: geography programmes of study. UK Department for Education.
  15. Real Academia Española. Lema.rae.es. He mea kite i te 2013-09-30.
  16. Preamble. Olympic Charter. International Olympic Committee (8 December 2014). He mea kite i te 7 August 2015. “the five interlaced rings, which represent the union of the five continents”
  17. "Total Population – Both Sexes". World Population Prospects, the 2010 Revision. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 28 June 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2011. (Per linked individual article definitions, North America includes UN population estimates for North America, Central America and Caribbean; Australia includes Australia and Papua New Guinea.)
  18. Non-permanent, varies. See also: Demographics of Antarctica. Antarctica. CIA World Factbook. March 2011 data. Retrieved December 24, 2011.
  19. Forbes проигнорировал Москву. www.irn.ru.
  20. Plummer, Joel. Jakobshavn Bed Elevation, Center for the Remote Sensing of the Ice Sheets, Dept of Geography, University of Kansas.